Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (2023)

The nation's largest fiber providers, including AT&T, Verizon, Frontier, Lumen (CenturyLink/Quantum) and Windstream, plan to work togetherSpoonBy 2030, around 55 million homes will have fiber optic cablesInstallationThe process that actually connects these homes to the Internet is becoming more and more important, and it is more and more important to understand it.

Overall, the installation process of fiber optic cables bridges the gap between homes that "can" be connected to fiber and homes that "are" connected to fiber -Provision of high speed internet, video and voice services. In other words, a fiber provider's customer penetration.

Dgtl Infra provides a detailed overview of the fiber optic cable installation process, which includes fiber optic drop, fiber splicing, mounting a "wall box" or termination housing, enabling fiber access into the home, and setting up an optical network terminal (ONT) and enabling Internet, video and voice services over fiber optics. In addition, we answer important questions including: What do fiber optic installers do? and how long does the fiber optic installation take? Finally, Dgtl Infra verifies the costs of fiber optic installation for both the provider and the customer.

What is fiber installation?

Fiber optic installation is about transforming a residential building from the construction phase into a "home".household passed"to be"connected” or installed with fiber optics. The differences between these two phases are:

  • household passed:Fiber optic cables "run" past a home along the street, meaning the home is "capable" of being served by a provider's fiber distribution facility, but may not be "connected" yet
  • Connected:A fiber optic "drop" cable from the nearest network access point connects to the home. This enables a customer to order and receive internet, video and voice services from their fiber provider

If you want to know more about the initial:household passed” phase as well as the process and construction costs for the fiber optic networkconstruction, then check Dgtl Infra's previous analysis here:

CONTINUE READING: Building a fiber optic network: process and construction costs

In the following fiberInstallationFor the sake of clarity, we use the example from adetached housebe "connected" or installed with fiber optic services.

Preparation for fiber optic installation

Before fiber to the home (FTTH) is installed, a fiber optic provider performs construction, preparation and permitting work that includes the following tasks:

  • civil engineer:Site survey, site inspection, supply conflict analysis (e.g. electricity and water), mapping
  • Get ready:On-site survey of the ground or poles used to carry fiber optics from the street to the home
  • To permit:Submission of engineering plans, details of installation or relocation of equipment and securing municipal right-of-way

When a customer orders fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) service, a special fiber-optic cableinstallerand"truck roll"Sent to the customer's home for service connection and placement of new equipment.

CONTINUE READING: Fiber to the home (FTTH) vs. FTTP, FTTN, FTTC and FTTB

What is a fiber drop?

A fiber optic connection connects a fiber optic service provider's access point to the optical network terminal (ONT) on the side of a customer's home via a fiber optic cable.

Fiber to the home (FTTH) Netzwerk
Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (1)
(Video) Fibre to the home pre installation process – setting expectations

Activation of new services requires the installation and connection of a fiber optic.drops"cable from"household passed“Point toheim. This location is called "drops” point and may take the form of a fiber optic pedestal (above-ground access point), handhole, manhole, chamber, or utility/telephone pole.

Fiber sockets and inserts - from Clearfield
Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (2)

A "drop point" means the location of a fiber transport network's feeder cable originating from a fiber provider's central office (CO).finishedorconnected. If the fiberglass isdoes notterminated or bundled is the name for the other common method of connecting fiber optic cablesSplaywhich will be discussed in the next section.

From this "drop" point, a fiber optic installer connects a fiber optic "drop" cable to a box on the exterior wall of a home in two ways:

  • Underground:Laying fiber optic cables underground using ploughing, burying or directional drilling techniques. Alternatively, if underground lines exist, the fiber optic cable can be routed through this infrastructure to the home
  • From the air:Fiber optic cables are routed through overhead lines or telephone poles to a predetermined location in the customer's home
Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (3)

What is fiber splicing?

Fiber splicing is a fiber-to-fiber connection where the ends of two fiber strands are joined together. Below we discuss the preparation and process of fiber splicing:

Preparation for splicing fiber optic cables

To prepare the fiber for splicing, the fiber optic cable must be completely strippedfiberglass itself, removal of all protective components.

In this example installation, the fiber optic cable includes aMetal shieldinternallyyderjacks, several fiber threads in onebuffer tube, threads offKevlarwhich provides extra protection for the buffer tube, andripcordused to remove the outer sheath.

Cross section of fiber optic cable
Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (4)

The preparation begins by removing part of the outer jacket of the fiber optic cable using the rip cables. This will expose the metal shield, buffer tube and Kevlar wires. The metal shielding and Kevlar strands are then removed and discarded, leaving only the exposed buffer tube. Pulling back the buffer tube reveals the optical fiber used for splicing.

After the fiber is stripped, it is cleaned with alcohol, placed in holders and cut to precise length with a fiber splitter. A splicing protection sleeve is also added to protect the fiber after splicing.

How to splice a fiber optic cable?

Splicing is commonly used foractive"Fiber is brought into the house with the newly laid fiber optics in the house. Below are two examples of splicing fiber optics in different places in the house:

(Video) Installing a Nid on a Customers house for a Fiber Optic Drop

1) Splicing of a fiber droplet

The video below shows how to splice a fiber drop using "dropsThe point is placed on a fiberglass plinth outside the customer's home. This splicing allows a single fiber to be routed to the customer's home for installation.

2) Splicing of optical fibers at optical network terminal (ONT)

The video below shows how fiber is spliced ​​at an optical network terminal (ONT) mounted on the wall of a customer's home.

What methods are there for fiber splicing?

There are two methods of splicing fibersfusionsplicing andmechanicalSplicing, with fusion splicing being the most commonly used method for splicing optical fibers.

I amfusionA special fusion splicing machine is used in the splicing process to precisely align the two fiber ends. The glass ends are then "melted" using an arc. The splice protection sleeve is then crimped using the splicer's heater.

After splicing, the two fibers lie side by side, forming a transparent, continuous connection and an optical path between the fibers.

Fitel Ninja NJ001 fusion splicer

Below is an example of a commonly used fusion splicer manufactured by Furukawa Electric known as the Fitel Ninja NJ001.

Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (5)

How are fiber optics installed in a home?

Fiber optic cabling is installed in a home through: i) a "wall box" or junction box, ii) creating an entry point for the fiber, and iii) through an optical network terminal (ONT).

(Video) Splicing Fiber-To-The-Home

"Wall Box" or closed house

First, a fiber optic installer assembles a "Wanddose” or termination box on the side of a house, near the house's electrical panel. This wall box creates ademarcation pointor "limit"between the service provider's fiber network and the customer's. Typically, the fiber optic cable enters the termination housing, which is surrounded by a riser (tube).

Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (6)

This wall box serves two main purposes:

  1. Storage of Slack:Any fiber optic cable left over from the "drop" to the house or from the entrance to the house can be wound up in the wall box
  2. Maintenance:When a fiber optic technician attaches a wall box to the outside of a house, this is not the caseinitiallyYou need to enter a house to solve network problems. Instead, fiber technicians can start their network diagnostic checks from home. At the same time, fiber technicians can disconnect both sides of the fiber connector from the wall box to determine where the problem may be

Finally, the optical network terminal (ONT) –discussed below– placed in the "wall box" / termination housing.

How do fiber optic cables enter the house?

Generally, a fiber optic installer will drill a hole from the inside of the house to the outside of the house, going through both the inside and outside walls. A fiber optic cable is passed through this hole so that it can both enter the housing and reach the junction box on the outside of the housing. Alternatively, where possible, fiber optics can be fed into a home along with existing air conditioning or utility lines.

All entry and exit holes must be sealed with silicone or sealant to prevent insects, dirt and rain from entering the housing or junction box.

What does the Optical Network Terminal (ONT) do?

All fiber-based services are delivered to a home by a fiber optic provider through aoptical network terminal (ONT)These are transceivers that are located at the customer's home. The installer terminates the fiber optic cable connection at an ONT, which converts the fiber optic light/optical signals into electrical signals, enabling the home network to provide Internet, video and voice services.

In the event of a power outage, an ONT must be powered by a power source at all times, such as a power cord or battery backup.

Calix 727GE ONT for single-family houses

Below is an example of an optical network terminal (ONT) used for single-family homes, called an "optical network terminal".Calix 727GE ONT. This device supports Gigabit Ethernet transmission technology for passive optical networks (GPON) and point-to-point Gigabit Ethernet in a single ONT.

Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (7)

INoptical network terminal (ONT)is also commonly referred to asoptical network unit (ONU)orNetwork Interface Device (NID).

Service Activation

The optical network terminal (ONT) works in the same way as aModem(ie provides a connection to the Internet) and has an RJ-45 Ethernet port to connect to the customer'sRouter. The router makes it possible to connect several devices in the house via WiFi or a wired Ethernet connection. Some indoor ONTs also act asTor, which combines the functionality of a router and a modem in one device.

(Video) Fiber Installation, Part 1 of 3: Installing Conduit

Fiber optic connection from headquarters to home

As shown below, fiber optic connections can be made to optical network terminals (ONTs) located both inside and outside the home. In the outdoor ONT example, an Ethernet cable acts as the final connection to connect the outdoor ONT to the customer's indoor router.

Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (8)

Once the customer's home is connected to the ONT, the fiber provider can provide internet, video and voice services over fiber. Internet signals can then be transmitted over WiFi through the customer's router or gateway device.

CONTINUE READING: Fiber optic broadband internet is the future for your home

What do fiber optic installers do?

Fiber optic installers perform civil engineering work, lay fiber optic cables, build cabinets and "wall boxes" or termination boxes, splice fibers, vertical (riser) and horizontal (floor) cabling, and connect and test laid fiber through optical cable components.

How long does the fiber optic installation take?

On average, it takes 1 to 5 business days to install a fiber optic "drop" cable from a "drop" point to the home, depending on whether the fiber needs to be buriedundergroundor runfrom the airon overhead lines. Underground fiber optic installations are much more time consuming (than aerial connections) and therefore the process can take up to 7 working days.

Once the fiber reaches the customer's "wall box" or termination box next to their home, the remaining installation process takes only 3 to 6 hours. This part of the installation process includes bringing the fiber into the home and setting up the optical network terminal (ONT) that connects to the Internet.

Costs for fiber optic installation –provider and customer

How much does it cost to connect fiber to the house?

Overall, the average price for aservice providerToconnectFiber to a subscriber's home costs between $500 and $700. These costs include the fiber optic "drop", the optical network terminal (ONT) for Internet service, the customer's equipment (router or gateway), and the labor required to install the fiber optic cable.

Of these, the optical network terminal (ONT) and customer equipment (CPE) costs the provider about $200 per home.

CONTINUE READING: Investments and expansion of broadband technologies are increasing

Is there an installation fee for fiber optics?

On the customer side, fiber providers typically charge their customers a one-time installation fee of $75 to $99. This installation fee is in addition to the monthly service fees customers pay and helps the fiber provider offset some of the previously mentioned costs of installing fiber optic cables.

What is an Internet Equipment Fee?

An Internet Equipment Fee includes a monthly fee to rent a modem and/or router from an Internet Service Provider (ISP). In the case of a fiber optic provider, the internet equipment fee will include the cost of renting an indoor optical network terminal (ONT) or gateway (modem and router combination).


Generally, internet equipment fees range from $10 to $15 per month, depending on the fiber provider. Again, these fees help the fiber provider balance the costs of ONT and Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) over time.

Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses (9)


Fiber optic cable installation process: connecting houses? ›

Commonly, a fiber installer will drill a hole from the inside of the home, to the outside of the home, which goes through both interior and exterior walls. Fiber optic cable will be run through this hole, such that it can enter the home, as well as reach the termination enclosure on the outside of the home.

How does fiber optic cable connect to house? ›

How Does Fiber Internet Connect to Your Home? Fiber optic cable runs via an aerial or underground drop to the 'clamshell' that the technician installs outside your home. This clamshell houses the fiber cable that goes through the wall and connects to the optical network terminal (ONT).

How to install a fiber optic home network? ›

If your ISP doesn't require a technician to set up your connection, these are the steps to self-install fiber internet:
  1. Locate your fiber network terminal.
  2. Connect the fiber terminal to the network box.
  3. Plug in your network box.
  4. Connect your device to the network box.
  5. Set up your home Wi-Fi network.
Mar 22, 2023

Do I need to rewire my house for fiber optic? ›

Fiber Optic Cables

You won't be able to take advantage of fiber optic internet if your home is still wired with traditional copper wiring. Copper isn't capable of utilizing the light that is used to transmit data through fiber optic cables.

How deep is fiber optic cable buried to my house? ›

Fiber optic cable is buried in conduits, typically at a depth of 3 feet to 4 feet, which is equivalent to 36 inches to 48 inches underground.

Does fiber-optic use a router? ›

To use the fiber optic internet service, you would need a fiber optic router to accommodate fiber-optic speeds. Whether you can purchase a router or leas one, all recommendation shows getting a new router from your provider ensures all services are compatible and work right as promised with new services.

How is internet connected to a house? ›

The wireless ISP sends signals to a tower, which receives and sends the signal to your home. A receiver (often roof mounted so it can point directly toward the tower) picks up the signals and sends them to your home modem to provide a connection.

How do I connect two buildings together for a network? ›

When you want to extend a network from one building to another, the best answer is almost always a cable—preferably a burial-grade cable, either Ethernet or fiber, laid in a conduit and buried several feet underground.

Can you couple fiber optic cable? ›

A fiber optic coupler is a device that can distribute the optical signal from one fiber among two or more fibers, or combine the optical signal from two or more fibers into a single fiber.

What is the connection between two buildings called? ›

A skyway, skybridge, skywalk, or sky walkway is an elevated type of pedway connecting two or more buildings in an urban area, or connecting elevated points within mountainous recreational zones. Urban skyways very often take the form of enclosed or covered footbridges that protect pedestrians from the weather.

What are the three most important considerations in fiber optic installation? ›

Top 7 Considerations for Fiber Optic Cable Installation
  • Minimum Bend Radius. ...
  • Maximum Tensile Rating. ...
  • Maximum Vertical Rise. ...
  • Cable Protection. ...
  • Duct Utilization. ...
  • Preconnectorized Fiber Cable Assemblies. ...
  • Fiber Optic Cable Slack.

Who installs Fibre optic cables? ›

If you require fibre cabling to be installed, you should select a fibre cabling specialist contractor. Unlike copper cabling, the correct installation of fibre cabling requires training, experience, and specialist splicing and test equipment.

How long does fiber installation take? ›

Fiber Line Installation

This typically takes 5-7 working days. During this time, you may see crews feeding the fiber through the conduit from the street to your home.

What is the biggest downside to fiber optic cabling? ›

Disadvantages of Fibre Optic Cable

The cost to produce optic fibre cabling is higher than that of copper. Installation is also more expensive as special test equipment is usually required. As they are made of glass, fibre optic cables are more fragile than electrical wires like copper cabling.

How do I know if my house is wired for fiber? ›

How do I know if I have Fiber-Optic Internet? If you have an Optical Network Terminal (ONT) like this on the outside of your location, your connection is fiber-optic. If you have a Network Interface Device (NID) box like one of these on the outside of your location, your connection is copper.

Is fiber optic cable always buried? ›

Fiber optic cables should always be buried beneath the frost line. This depth may vary depending on the geographical location of the installation. Direct burial applications imply one of two installation methods are being used; trenching or plowing.

How much does it cost to run fiber optic cable per foot? ›

Fiber Optic Installation Costs

There are many variables that contribute to the overall cost of a new fiber optic installation. In general, it will cost between $1 and $6 per linear foot of cable installed.

How does a fiber optic cable get buried? ›

There are two main types of underground fiber installation: direct burial and underground duct installation. With direct burial installation, the cable – typically steel-armored outdoor fiber cable – is either plowed in or trenched. With plowing, the cable is fed into the hole as a specialized vehicle plows the line.

Can I install fiber optic internet myself? ›

Depending on your address and the plan you select, you may be eligible to self install your Google Fiber internet service and phone service. Two kits are available: Self-Install Kit for Google Fiber (internet service) Self-Install Kit for Google Fiber Phone (phone service)

What equipment is needed for fiber optic internet? ›

5 Pieces of Equipment You Need for Fiber Internet
  • Fiber Optic Cable. A fiber-optic cable is a type of cable that quickly transmits data over long distances. ...
  • Clamshell. ...
  • Fiber Optic Modem (Optical Network Terminal) ...
  • Fiber-Ready Router (Residential Gateway) ...
  • Home Network Management App.

Do you get Wi-Fi with fiber optic internet? ›

Wi-Fi exists inside your home. Fiber delivers the internet to your home router, and Wi-Fi provides wireless access for all of your devices connected to the internet through your router. Outside your house, fiber can improve the strength and reliability of your service, giving you great speed right up to your home.

Does cable and internet run on the same line? ›

DSL and cable internet are different in how they deliver internet to your home. DSL internet runs through standard phone lines that are wired into your home. Cable goes through the cable lines. There is more bandwidth with cable, so cable is usually faster.

What are the four things needed to connect to the internet? ›

  • Telephone line, modem, computer, and an ISP are the four things needed to connect to the Internet.
  • Once you have your computer, you really don't need much additional hardware to connect to the Internet. ...
  • Suppose you want to connect your computer to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) using an ordinary phone line.

Does internet have to be wired in to house? ›

If you don't have (or want) a physical cable connecting your home to the internet, you can still connect with a wireless internet connection. There are tons of different options, including fixed wireless, 4G and 5G home internet, mobile hotspots, and satellite.

How does fiber optic connect to modem? ›

Since the optical wiring is designed for data connections, Fiber doesn't require a modem. Instead, it uses an ONT at each endpoint, short for Optical Network Terminal. An ONT converts the optical signals into the common Ethernet standard via a Base-T or SFP/SFP+ port.

What is the difference between a fiber optic router and a normal router? ›

Fiber optic provides the same speed, but the way fiber optic handles the network congestion and provides high speed makes it a better option when a single network is handling many users. With a wireless connection, you will face network congestion that causes slow load times.

How do I get WiFi on another building on my property? ›

One way to attain complete WiFi coverage throughout your home is to install a range extender. A range extender increases WiFi coverage by connecting to your existing WiFi router and creating a separate WiFi network that has its own name and security credentials.

Can you have two home networks in one house? ›

Yes, you can have two WiFi networks in one house.

A router is a device that allows multiple devices to connect to the Internet at the same time. Most routers have two WiFi networks: 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.

How do I connect two local area networks? ›

A bridge can be used to connect two similar LANs, such as two CSMA/CD LANs. A bridge can also be used to connect two closely similar LANs, such as a CSMA/CD LAN and a token ring LAN. The bridge examines the destination address in a frame and either forwards this frame onto the next LAN or does not.

How many connections does a fiber-optic cable have? ›

In a standard fiber cable, each group of 12 strands is encased in a small tube that itself is one of those 12 colors. A fiber cable that has 144 strands, is comprised of 12 different colored tubes that each contain 12 different colored fiber strands.

What are the two most common connectors used with fiber optic cabling? ›

The most commonly used connectors today are ST, SC, FC, MT-RJ, & LC connectors while Plastic FOC, Opti-Jack, LX-5, Volition, MU, and E2000 are less used options. Finally, MPO / MTP connectors are fiber connectors that have become widely used in today's data centers.

How many fiber optic cables do I need for full-duplex? ›

On the other hand, the full duplex system uses two fibers to communicate. This allows one fiber to transmit from point A to point B while the other fiber transmits from B to A. Therefore, both ends of a full-duplex system have both transmitters and receivers.

What do you call a row of houses connected? ›

In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terraced house (UK) or townhouse (US) is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings share side walls.

What are connected houses called? ›

A townhouse is an attached single-family home that shares a wall with one or two other townhouses. Sometimes called row houses, townhouses often have multiple floors and some outdoor space. There are a lot of benefits of owning a townhouse.

What is the space between 2 houses called? ›

The area between two houses is typically referred to as the "sideyard" or "side yard." It's the space located on the sid.

How do I prepare for fiber optic installation? ›

If your ISP doesn't require a technician to set up your connection, these are the steps to self-install fiber internet:
  1. Locate your fiber network terminal.
  2. Connect the fiber terminal to the network box.
  3. Plug in your network box.
  4. Connect your device to the network box.
  5. Set up your home Wi-Fi network.

What are 3 hazards when working with fiber optic cables? ›

Many of the cables are accessed via manholes, and as confined spaces run the risk of explosive atmospheres, dangers of asphyxiation, and injuries from contact with live equipment, these dangers are associated with handling fibre optic cables.

What are the 3 most common fiber connectors? ›

Types of Fiber Optic Connector

In the USA for networking and audio/video, the three most popular styles are LC, SC, and ST. LC and SC tend to be the most commonly used styles. Today, ST connectors are seeing more limited usage.

How much does it cost to install fiber optic cable in home? ›

How Much Does it Cost to Lay Fiber? On average, it costs between $1,000 to $1,250 per residential household passed or $60,000 to $80,000 per route mile, to “lay” or bury fiber optic cable.

How deep is fiber optic cable buried? ›

The main line in the easements and right of ways are buried between two and four feet deep and the fiber drop to the house or to the pedestal may vary between 8 to 12 inches in depth.

How long after fiber poop? ›

However, it generally takes around 24 hours from increasing your dietary fiber intake to have a successful bowel movement. But keep in mind that it may take more or less time for some people.

What happens at a full fibre installation? ›

With Full Fibre installation, we'll upgrade the master phone socket (the white box on the wall) and install an Openreach modem (ONT), which connects to the fibre optical cable that comes into your house. The ONT enables you to get our fibre broadband and phone services, and connects to your BT Smart Hub.

What are the disadvantages of fiber optic internet? ›

Although fiber optic networks present many advantages, there are also some disadvantages to take into consideration. These include physical damage, cost considerations, structure, and the possibility of a “fiber fuse”.

What does fiber wiring look like? ›

Fiber optic cables, from the outside at least, don't look drastically different from many other kinds of cabling, since their outermost layer tends to be a colored plastic or silicon tubing. It's common for them to be white, grey, or black in color, but there are more colorful options available if that's useful.

Is Fiber internet wired or wireless? ›

Fiber Internet is the wired choice of our present times. It has replaced traditional copper-based facilities such as T-1, DSL, and Ethernet over Copper.

Does fiber optic use a modem? ›

But when you sign up for fiber optic internet service, you're going to need to get your hands on a new modem. That's because old modems aren't able to take the light signals sent through fiber optic cables and convert them into digital signals. They're only able to take analog signals and turn them into digital ones.

What fiber optic cable is used in residential? ›

What type of fiber cable is being installed in the residential installation? Well, that may all depend in the application needed. In many cases multimode OM3 or OM4 fiber is a good choice and will future proof much of the network for years to come.

What are three 3 limitations of fiber optic cable? ›

Disadvantages of Fibre Optic Cable

The cost to produce optic fibre cabling is higher than that of copper. Installation is also more expensive as special test equipment is usually required. As they are made of glass, fibre optic cables are more fragile than electrical wires like copper cabling.

What problems may arise using Fibre optic cable? ›

Excessive bending and flexing can put physical stress on a fiber optic cable causing it to break. Excessive loss of signal due to a long fiber optic span. "dirty" or contaminated connectors on fiber optic cables can cause extreme signal loss. A faulty splice or connectors can cause a great deal of signal loss.

Does fiber internet come with a router? ›

Fiber Internet & ONT

Typically, when you purchase a fiber optic Internet plan, your ISP will install their own modem and router that you rent from them.

Does fiber optic require drilling? ›

Once a location has been determined, the installer will run the fiber-optic line from the pole directly to your house. To bring fiber into your home, they will drill a small hole through an exterior wall*.


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